Modelling of Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) Pretreatment on Fresh Moringa oleifera Leaves Extraction Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

Sukardi Sukardi, Dodyk Pranowo, Puput Safitri



Moringa leaves are a source of high antioxidants. This study aims to find an equation model for the extraction conditions of Moringa leaves with Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) pretreatment. Fresh Moringa leaves were treated with PEF in various voltages (1,000, 1,500, and 2,000 Volts), frequency (1,000, 1,500 and 2,000 Hz) and extraction time (4, 5 and 6 hours) as the factors studied. The best results and mathematical equation models obtained were determined from the extraction process. The parameters observed were yield, total phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity. The Response Surface Method (RSM) was chosen to determine the equation model for the voltage, frequency, and extraction time combination. The results of ANOVA (Sum of Squares, Lack of Fit, and p-value) show that the model is adequate to present experimental data. The analysis results showed a significant value for total phenol in a quadratic equation, extract yields in a linear equation, and antioxidant activity in a linear equation. The model is presented in a 2-D contour graph and a 3-D response surface. The equation model shows that the best treatment is a PEF voltage of 2,000 Volts, frequency of 1,000 Hz, and extraction time of 4 hours.

Keywords: antioxidant, equation model, moringa leaf, Pulsed Electric Field, Response Surface Method



Daun kelor merupakan salah satu sumber antioksidan yang tinggi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mencari model persamaan kondisi ekstraksi daun kelor dengan perlakuan pendahuluan Pulsed Electric Field (PEF). Daun kelor segar diperlakukan dengan PEF dalam berbagai tegangan (1.000, 1.500, dan 2.000 Volt), frekuensi (1.000, 1.500 dan 2.000 Hz) dan waktu ekstraksi (4, 5 dan 6 jam) sebagai faktor yang diteliti. Hasil terbaik dan model persamaan matematika ditentukan dari proses ekstraksi. Parameter yang diamati adalah rendemen, total senyawa fenol, dan aktivitas antioksidan. Response Surface Method (RSM) dipilih untuk mengetahui model persamaan kombinasi tegangan, frekuensi, dan waktu ekstraksi. Hasil ANOVA (Sum of Squares, Lack of Fit, dan p-value) menunjukkan bahwa model layak untuk menyajikan data eksperimen. Hasil analisis menunjukkan nilai yang signifikan pada total fenol dalam persamaan kuadratik, hasil ekstrak dalam persamaan linier, dan aktivitas antioksidan dalam persamaan linier. Model dipresentasikan dalam grafik kontur 2-D dan permukaan respons 3-D. Model persamaan menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan terbaik adalah tegangan PEF 2.000 Volt, frekuensi 1.000 Hz dan waktu ekstraksi 4 jam.

Kata kunci: antioksidan, daun kelor, model persamaan, Pulsed Electric Field, Response Surface Method


antioxidant; equation model; moringa leaf; Pulsed Electric Field; Response Surface Method; antioksidan; daun kelor; model persamaan

Full Text:



Alhakmani, F., Kumar, S., & Khan, S. A. (2013). Estimation of total phenolic content, in–vitro antioxidant and anti–inflammatory activity of flowers of Moringa oleifera. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 3(8), 623–627.

Almajed, A., Srirama, D., & Moghal, A. A. B. (2021). Response surface method analysis of chemically stabilized fiber-reinforced soil. Materials, 14(6), 1535.

Anihouvi, V. B., Saalia, F., Sakyi-Dawson, E., Ayernor, G. S., & Hounhouigan, J. D. (2011). Response surface methodology for optimizing the fermentation conditions during the processing of cassava fish (Pseudotolithus sp) into Lanhouin. International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 3(9), 7085–7094.

AOAC. (2019). Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (21st ed.; G. Latimer, ed.). Washington DC: AOAC.

Arora, D. S., Onsare, J. G., & Kau, H. (2013). Bioprospecting of moringa (Moringaceae): Microbiological perspective. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 1(6), 193–215.

Asavasanti, S., Ristenpart, W., Stroeve, P., & Barrett, D. M. (2011). Permeabilization of plant tissues by monopolar pulsed electric fields: effect of frequency. Journal of Food Science, 76(1), E98–E111.

Bagga, D. K. (2018). Determining the significance of the research results beyond p value. International Journal of Biological & Medical Research, 9(2), 6278–6281.

Barba, F. J., Parniakov, O., Pereira, S. A., Wiktor, A., Grimi, N., Boussetta, N., … Vorobiev, E. (2015). Current applications and new opportunities for the use of pulsed electric fields in food science and industry. Food Research International, 77, 773–798.

Behera, S. K., Meena, H., Chakraborty, S., & Meikap, B. C. (2018). Application of response surface methodology (RSM) for optimization of leaching parameters for ash reduction from low-grade coal. International Journal of Mining Science and Technology, 28(4), 621–629.

Berawi, K. N., Wahyudo, R., & Pratama, A. A. (2019). Potensi terapi Moringa oleifera (Kelor) pada penyakit degeneratif. JK Unila (Jurnal Kedokteran Universitas Lampung), 3(1), 2010–2214.

Berkovich, L., Earon, G., Ron, I., Rimmon, A., Vexler, A., & Lev-Ari, S. (2013). Moringa oleifera aqueous leaf extract down-regulates nuclear factor-kappaB and increases cytotoxic effect of chemotherapy in pancreatic cancer cells. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 13(1), 212.

Bobinaitė, R., Pataro, G., Visockis, M., Bobinas, Č., Ferrari, G., & Viškelis, P. (2017). Potential application of pulsed electric fields to improve the recovery of bioactive compounds from sour cherries and their by-products. 11th Baltic Conference on Food Science and Technology “Food Science and Technology in a Changing World,” 70–74. Jelgava (Latvia).

Boussetta, N., Grimi, N., & Vorobiev, E. (2015). Pulsed electrical technologies assisted polyphenols extraction from agricultural plants and bioresources: A review. International Journal of Food Processing Technology, 2(1), 1–10.

Bozinou, E., Karageorgou, I., Batra, G., G. Dourtoglou, V., & I. Lalas, S. (2019). Pulsed electric field extraction and antioxidant activity determination of moringa oleifera dry leaves: A comparative study with other extraction techniques. Beverages, 5(1), 8.

Ersus, S., Oztop, M. H., McCarthy, M. J., & Barrett, D. M. (2010). Disintegration efficiency of pulsed electric field induced effects on onion (Allium cepa L.) tissues as a function of pulse protocol and determination of cell integrity by 1H-NMR relaxometry. Journal of Food Science, 75(7), E444–E452.

Gachovska, T., Cassada, D., Subbiah, J., Hanna, M., Thippareddi, H., & Snow, D. (2010). Enhanced anthocyanin extraction from red cabbage using pulsed electric field processing. Journal of Food Science, 75(6), E323–E329.

Gopalakrishnan, L., Doriya, K., & Kumar, D. S. (2016). Moringa oleifera: A review on nutritive importance and its medicinal application. Food Science and Human Wellness, 5(2), 49–56.

Gorobchenko, A., Mareev, S., & Nikonenko, V. (2021). Mathematical modeling of the effect of pulsed electric field on the specific permselectivity of ion-exchange membranes. Membranes, 11(2), 115.

Gorte, O., Nazarova, N., Papachristou, I., Wüstner, R., Leber, K., Syldatk, C., … Silve, A. (2020). Pulsed electric field treatment promotes lipid extraction on fresh oleaginous yeast Saitozyma podzolica DSM 27192. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, 8, 575379.

Gulzar, S., & Benjakul, S. (2019). Impact of pulsed electric field pretreatment on yield and quality of lipid extracted from cephalothorax of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei ) by ultrasound‐assisted process. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 55(2), 619–630.

Huang, W., Feng, Z., Aila, R., Hou, Y., Carne, A., & Bekhit, A. E.-D. A. (2019). Effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on physico-chemical properties, β-carotene and antioxidant activity of air-dried apricots. Food Chemistry, 291, 253–262.

Jäger, H., & Knorr, D. (2017). Pulsed Electric Fields Treatment in Food Technology: Challenges and Opportunities. In Handbook of Electroporation (pp. 1–24). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Janositz, A., Noack, A.-K., & Knorr, D. (2011). Pulsed electric fields and their impact on the diffusion characteristics of potato slices. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 44(9), 1939–1945.

Kasolo, J. N., Bimenya, G. S., Ojok, L., Ochieng, J., & Ogwal-Okeng, J. W. (2010). Phytochemicals and uses of Moringa oleifera leaves in Ugandan rural communities. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 4(9), 753–757.

Kayalvizhi, V., Pushpa, A. J. S., Sangeetha, G., & Antony, U. (2016). Effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment on sugarcane juice. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 53(3), 1371–1379.

Luengo, E., Condón-Abanto, S., Álvarez, I., & Raso, J. (2014). Effect of pulsed electric field treatments on permeabilization and extraction of pigments from Chlorella vulgaris. The Journal of Membrane Biology, 247(12), 1269–1277.

Łukaszewska, Z. N., Toczek, D. F., Bujak, T., Wasilewski, T., & Baran, Z. H. (2020). Moringa oleifera L. extracts as bioactive ingredients that increase safety of body wash cosmetics. Dermatology Research and Practice, 2020, 1–14.

Nascimento, K. de O. do, Reis, I. P., & Augusta, I. M. (2017). Total phenolic and antioxidant capacity of flower, leaf and seed of Moringa oleifera. International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 1(1), 1–6.

Nowosad, K., Sujka, M., Pankiewicz, U., & Kowalski, R. (2021). The application of PEF technology in food processing and human nutrition. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 58(2), 397–411.

Paliwal, R., Sharma, V., & Pracheta. (2011). A review on horse radish tree (Moringa oleifera): a multipurpose tree with high economic and commercial importance. Asian Journal of Biotechnology, 3(4), 317–328.

Pambi, R. L. L., & Musonge, P. (2016). Application of response surface methodology (RSM) in the treatment of final effluent from the sugar industry using Chitosan. International Conference on Modelling, Monitoring and Management of Water Pollution, 209–219.

Pandey, A., Pandey, R. D., Tripathi, P., Gupta, P. P., Haider, J., Bhatt, S., & Singh, A. . (2012). Moringa oleifera Lam. (Sahijan) - A plant with a plethora of diverse therapeutic benefits: An updated retrospection. Medicinal & Aromatic Plants, 1(1), 1000101.

Pinela, J., Prieto, M. A., Carvalho, A. M., Barreiro, M. F., Oliveira, M. B. P. P., Barros, L., & Ferreira, I. C. F. R. (2016). Microwave-assisted extraction of phenolic acids and flavonoids and production of antioxidant ingredients from tomato: A nutraceutical-oriented optimization study. Separation and Purification Technology, 164, 114–124.

Puértolas, E., López, N., Condón, S., Álvarez, I., & Raso, J. (2010). Potential applications of PEF to improve red wine quality. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 21(5), 247–255.

Puértolas, E., Luengo, E., Álvarez, I., & Raso, J. (2012). Improving mass transfer to soften tissues by pulsed electric fields: Fundamentals and applications. Annual Review of Food Science and Technology, 3(1), 263–282.

Rockwood, J. L., Anderson, B. G., & Casamatta, D. A. (2013). Potential uses of Moringa oleifera and an examination of antibiotic efficacy conferred by M. oleifera seed and leaf extracts using crude extraction techniques available to underserved indigenous populations.

International Journal of Phytotherapy Research, 3(2), 61–71.

Sánchez-Rangel, J. C., Benavides, J., Heredia, J. B., Cisneros-Zevallos, L., & Jacobo-Velázquez, D. A. (2013). The Folin–Ciocalteu assay revisited: improvement of its specificity for total phenolic content determination. Analytical Methods, 5(21), 5990.

Santoso, B. B., & Parwata, I. G. M. A. (2018). Biji dan Bioteknologi Benih Kelor Moringa oleifera Lam. Lombok Barat: Arga Puji.

Satriyani, D. P. P. (2021). Review artikel: Aktivitas antioksidan ekstrak daun kelor (Moringa oleifera Lam.). JFM (Jurnal Farmasi Malahayati), 4(2), 31–43.

Shahwar, D., Shafiq-ur-Rehman, Ahmad, N., Ullah, S., & Raza, M. A. (2010). Antioxidant activities of the selected plants from the family Euphorbiaceae, Lauraceae, Malvaceae and Balsaminaceae. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9(7), 1086–1096.

Sharma, N., Gupta, P. C., & Rao, C. V. (2012). Nutrient content, mineral content and antioxidant activity of Amaranthus viridis and Moringa oleifera leaves. Research Journal of Medicinal Plant, 6(3), 253–259.

Siddeeg, A., Manzoor, M. F., Ahmad, M. H., Ahmad, N., Ahmed, Z., Khan, M. K. I., … Ammar, A.-F. (2019). Pulsed electric field-assisted ethanolic extraction of date palm fruits: Bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity and physicochemical properties. Processes, 7(9), 585.

Siemer, C., Toepfl, S., & Heinz, V. (2012). Mass Transport Improvement by PEF - Applications in the Area of Extraction and Distillation. In Distillation - Advances from Modeling to Applications. InTech.

Silve, A., Leray, I., Poignard, C., & Mir, L. M. (2016). Impact of external medium conductivity on cell membrane electropermeabilization by microsecond and nanosecond electric pulses. Scientific Reports, 6(1), 19957.

Sohaimy, S. A. El, Hamad, G. M., Mohamed, S. E., Amar, M. H., & Al-Hindi, R. R. (2015). Biochemical and functional properties of Moringa oleifera leaves and their potential as a functional food. Global Advanced Research Journal of Agricultural Science, 4(4), 188–199.

Sukardi, S., Soeparman, S., Argo, B. D., & Irawan, Y. S. (2019). Use of pulsed electric fields to induce breakage of glandular trichome cells in leaves of fresh patchouli (Pogostemon cablin Benth.): Specific energy input consumption. International Journal of Plant Biology, 10(1), 7443.

Susanty, Ridnugrah, N. A., Chaerrudin, A., & Yudistirani, S. A. (2019). Aktivitas antioksidan ekstrak daun kelor (Moringa oleifera) sebagai zat tambahan pembuatan moisturizer. Prosiding Semnastek (Seminar Nasional Sains Dan Teknologi), 1–7. Jakarta: Fakultas Teknik. Universitas Muhammadiyah Jakarta.

Tjong, A., Assa, Y. A., & Purwanto, D. S. (2021). Kandungan antioksidan pada daun kelor (Moringa oleifera) dan potensi sebagai penurun kadar kolesterol darah. EBiomedik, 9(2), 248–254.

Upadhya, V., Pai, S. R., & Hegde, H. V. (2015). Effect of method and time of extraction on total phenolic content in comparison with antioxidant activities in different parts of Achyranthes aspera. Journal of King Saud University - Science, 27(3), 204–208.

Vongsak, B., Sithisarn, P., Mangmool, S., Thongpraditchote, S., Wongkrajang, Y., & Gritsanapan, W. (2013). Maximizing total phenolics, total flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera leaf extract by the appropriate extraction method. Industrial Crops and Products, 44, 566–571.

Winter, B. (2015). The F distribution and the basic principle behind ANOVAs (pp. 1–18). pp. 1–18. Retrieved from

Yusuf, M. S., & Tungadi, R. (2022). Ekstrak daun kelor (Moringa oleifera) sebagai antikanker payudara: Narrative review. Journal Syifa Sciences and Clinical Research (JSSCR), 4(1), 237–243.

Zderic, A., Zondervan, E., & Meuldijk, J. (2013). Breakage of cellular tissue by pulsed electric field: Extraction of polyphenols from fresh tea leaves. Chemical Engineering Transactions, 32, 1795–1800.

Zhao, N., & Wang, M. (2021). Research on parameter optimization of the express warehousing and distribution system based on the box–behnken response surface methodology. Advances in Civil Engineering, 2021, 1–9.

Zhong, L., Liu, Y., Xiong, B., Chen, L., Zhang, Y., & Li, C. (2019). Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of total flavonoids from Dendranthema indicum var . aromaticum by response surface methodology. Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry, 2019, 1–10.


  • There are currently no refbacks.